The Five Basic Human Rights (Or Essentials) Islaam Safeguards and Honors

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful…

Question: What are the five basic human rights, or essentials, that Allaah safeguarded for the people through the message and mission of each and every prophet He sent?

Answer: They are as follows:

  1. Ad-Deen (The Religion)
  2. An-Nafs (Physical Safety)
  3. An-Nasl, or An-Nasab (Ancestry and Lineage)
  4. Al-‘Aql (Intellect)
  5. Al-Maal (Property)

Question: What is the proof for these five basic human rights?

Answer: They are based on the scholars’ istiqraa’ (extracting something from the generality of the entire message) of not only the Quran and the Sunnah, but also from the previous legislations as well.

Question: Are they mentioned specifically in the Quran?

Answer: Yes, they have been mentioned in Soorah al-An’aam [6:151-152]:

6_151

 Say (O Muhammad): “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Do not join anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; do not kill your children fearing poverty – We provide for you and for them; do not go near fawaahish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse, etc.), whether committed openly or secretly, and do not kill anyone whom Allaah has forbidden, except by right (through an Islaamic legal system). This is what He has commanded you with so that you might understand.

6_152

And do not go near the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We do not burden any person except with what he can bear. And whenever you speak, say the truth, even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the Covenant of Allaah, This is what He commands you with, so that you might remember.

Question: Where are these five basic human rights mentioned in the above Verses exactly?

Answer: They can be referenced as follows:

1. Ad-Deen (The Religion)
Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Do not join anything in worship with Him…”

2. An-Nafs (Physical Safety)
“…Do not kill your children fearing poverty…” and “…Do not kill anyone whom Allaah has forbidden, except by right (through an Islaamic legal system)…”

3. An-Nasl, or An-Nasab (Ancestry and Lineage)
“…Do not go near fawaahish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly…”

4. Al-‘Aql (Intellect)
“…This is what He has commanded you with so that you might understand.”

5. Al-Maal (Property)
“…And do not go near the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice…”

Question: Which of the scholars of Islaam have mentioned these five basic human rights?

Answer: They were mentioned by some of the scholars in as early as (at least) the fifth century. Ash-Shaatibee (d.790) mentions them in his book, al-Muwaafaqaat (2/20), saying, “They have been safeguarded in every religion”, meaning in all previous legislations sent from Allaah to the previous prophets.

Question: Is there an easy way to remember all five basic rights?

Answer: The following line of poetry includes all five of them, adding ‘irdh (personal honor) as the sixth basic human right:

وحفظ دين ثم نفس مال نسب *** ومثلها عقل وعرض قد وجب

Or if you cannot read Arabic yet, then try the “BASIC” method in English:

  • Belongings (Property)
  • Ancestry
  • Safety
  • Intellect
  • Creed (Religion)

And Allaah knows best.

Written by: Moosaa Richardson

Contributions from: Husayn El Sharif, Mahmud ibn Sa’ad (may Allaah reward them generously)

Originally published about three years ago on the TROID forum (here)

10 thoughts on “The Five Basic Human Rights (Or Essentials) Islaam Safeguards and Honors

  1. السلام عليكم Brother Moosa.

    I am a Sri Lankan , a retired Aircraft Mechanic and 35 years in sponsored Multilingual Islaamic Publications and Da’wah. At the same time, since my return from Kuwait, with Allaah’s Mercy and Help reviving Islaam against all odds.

    To date, the Government with the help of the Buddhist monks have closed about 20 Mosques under various pretexts.

    The latest is they attempting to encroach into vacant potions of Muslim grave yards. Please pass this MESSAGE to those concerned.

    • وعليك السلام ورحمة الله

      May Allaah bless the Muslims of Sri Lanka with solid understanding of towheed, and may He grant them the ability to practice and spread that understanding in their land and beyond.

  2. Assalamu alaykum,

    you know the so-called “human rights” declarations? DO any of the acts ahve their basis in Islam?

    And what is the ruling on water, gas, oil, natural resources? I heard that they are for the Ummah not for individuals or something?

  3. Assalamu alaykum
    What is the meaning of safety? Just safety iin terms of lfie or death or even in terms of health like not losing a finger tooth or leg etc?

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